Verilog Cheat Sheet

Posted : admin On 1/29/2022
tRRD_SWhen issuing consecutive ACTIVATE commands to banks of different bank groups, the ACTIVATE commands have to be separated by tRRD_S (row-to-row delay--short)
tRRD_LIf the banks belong to the same bank group, their ACTIVATEs have to be separated by tRRD_L (row-to-row delay--long)
tFAWFour Activate Window or sometimes also called Fifth Activate Window is a timing restriction. tFAW specifies a window within which only four activate commands can be issued. So, you can issue ACTIVATE commands back-to-back with tRRD_S between them, but once you have completed 4 activates you cannot issue another one until the tFAW window expires.
REFRESH timing
tREFIThe device requires REFRESH commands at an average interval of tREFI
tRPPrecharge time. The banks have to be precharged and idle for tRP before a REFRESH command can be applied
tRFCDelay between the REFRESH command and the next valid command, except DES
READ & WRITE common timing
tCCD_S & tCCD_LBank accesses to different banks' groups require less time delay between accesses than bank accesses to within the same bank's group. Bank accesses to different bank groups require tCCD_S (or short) delay between commands while bank accesses within the same bank group require tCCD_L (or long) delay between commands.
AL (Additive Latency)With AL, the device allows a WRITE command to be issued immediately after the ACTIVATE command. The command is held for the time of AL before it is issued inside the device. This feature is supported to sustain higher bandwidths/speeds in the device.
READ timing
CL (CAS Latency)CAS is the Column-Address-Strobe, i.e., when the column address is presented on the lines. CL is the delay, in clock cycles, between the internal READ command and the availability of the first bit of output data. It is defined in the MR0 mode register. SDRAM data sheets typically specific what the CL needs to be set for a particular frequency of operation. *See Fig 7*
AL (Additive Latency)With AL, the device allows a READ command to be issued immediately after the ACTIVATE command. The command is held for the time of AL before it is issued inside the device. This feature is supported to sustain higher bandwidths/speeds in the device.
RL (Read Latency)This is the overall read latency and is defined as RL = CL + AL
tDQSCK (MIN/MAX)describes the allowed range for a rising data strobe edge relative to the clock CK_t, CK_c
tDQSCKis the actual position of a rising strobe edge relative to CK_t, CK_c
tQSHdescribes the data strobe high pulse width
tQSLtQSL - describes the data strobe low pulse width.
tDQSQThis describes the latest valid transition of the associated DQ data pins. From the picture below you'll see that it is the time between when DQS transitions to the left edge of the DQ>Write timing
CWL (CAS Write Latency)CWL is the delay, in clock cycles, between the internal WRITE command and the availability of the first bit of input data. It is defined in Mode Register MR2.
WL (Write Latency)This is the overall write latency and is defined as WL = CWL + AL
tDQSS (MIN/MAX)describes the allowed range for a rising data strobe edge relative to CK
tDQSSis the actual position of a rising strobe edge relative to CK
tDQSHdescribes the data strobe high pulse width
tDQSLdescribes the data strobe low pulse width
tWPSTThis of this as 'post-write'. It is the time from when the last valid data strobe to when the strobe goes to HIGH, non-drive level.
tWPREThis of this as 'pre-write'. It is the time between when the data strobe goes from non-valid (HIGH) to valid (LOW, initial drive level).
Mode Register timing
tMRDMRS command cycle time. It is the time required to complete the WRITE operation to the mode register and is the minimum time required between the two MRS commands shown in the tMRD Timing figure.
tMODis the minimum time required from an MRS command to a non MRS command, excluding DES.

Title: Verilog Quick Ref Card Author: Qualis Design Corporation Subject: Verilog Keywords: Verilog Syntax Created Date: Wednesday, April 22, 1998 8:21:22 AM. The Verilog Golden Reference Guide is a compact quick reference guide to the Verilog hardware description language, its syntax, semantics, synthesis and application to hardware design. The Verilog Golden Reference Guide is not intended as a replacement for the IEEE Standard Verilog Language Reference Manual.

Spring 2020 Section 1
Instructor Matthew D. Sinclair

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Adapted from Andy Phelps CS552-Sp'06 document
Last Updated: February 4, 2008

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

In the CS 552 course you will be limited to a small subset of the complete Verilog language. The purpose of this document is to outline and explain these usage restrictions. It is not a complete Verilog reference. You can consult the following resources for a more complete documentation of the language:

2. Justification of Limitation

The intention of limiting the Verilog language is to force you to 'think like hardware'. Verilog in its full form is a powerful HDL that can very nearly be used as a programming language with capabilities similar to C. While this is useful for experienced designers trying to increase productivity, there is no intellectual benefit to be gained by using the abstract features of Verilog. Instead, you will write Verilog in a manner that reflects the actual hardware you are trying to design. Think of it as verbally describing the components of a schematic sheet.

In addition to the educational value of using a subset of the Verilog specification, limiting your code to only well-understood constructs will also help to avoid some pitfalls which can lead to hard to find bugs. Verilog designs have been found which simulate correctly or incorrectly, basically at random, depending on what order certain assignments happen to execute in. Designing with a limited subset of Verilog will tend to produce good designs which synthesize well; for this reason you may be required to follow similar rules when you have a job in industry.

3. Allowed Keywords

Verilog keywords in this course are grouped into three categories: always allowed, allowed with stipulations, and never allowed. These groups can be found in Table 1. This list is not guaranteed to be complete. If you are ever in doubt about the use of a Verilog keyword consult the TA before proceeding.

Verilog Keyword Summary
Always AllowedAllowed with StipulationsNever Allowed
  • assign
  • module
  • endmodule
  • input
  • output
  • wire
  • define
  • parameter
  • case
  • casex
  • reg
  • always
  • begin
  • end
  • attribute
  • buf
  • bufif0
  • bufif1
  • casez
  • cmos
  • deassign
  • disable
  • edge
  • else
  • endattribute
  • endfunction
  • endprimitive
  • endspecify
  • endtable
  • endtask
  • event
  • for
  • forever
  • fork
  • function
  • generate
  • genvar
  • highz0
  • highz1
  • if
  • ifnone
  • initial
  • inout
  • integer
  • join
  • medium
  • large
  • macromodule
  • negedge
  • nmos
  • notif0
  • notif1
  • pmos
  • posedge
  • primitive
  • pull0
  • pull1
  • pulldown
  • pullup
  • rcmos
  • real
  • realtime
  • release
  • repeat
  • rnmos
  • rpmos
  • rtran
  • rtranif0
  • rtranif1
  • scalared
  • signed
  • small
  • specify
  • specparam
  • strength
  • strong0
  • strong1
  • supply0
  • supply1
  • table
  • task
  • time
  • tran
  • tranif0
  • tranif1
  • tri
  • tri0
  • tri1
  • triand
  • trior
  • trireg
  • unsigned
  • vectored
  • wait
  • wand
  • weak0
  • weak1
  • while
  • wor

Keywords in the allowed with stipulations group can only be used in conjunction with a case statement. The following stipulations apply:

  • case, casex - the default clause is required. If the default clause is used during execution, an error must be asserted. Large case statements (~12 lines or more) must go in their own module.
  • reg - can only be used to specify the outputs of a case statement.
  • always - can only be used to introduce a case statement.
  • begin - can only be used to introduce a case statement.
  • end - can only be used to terminate a case statement.

4. Allowed Operators

In this course you will be limited to using simple boolean logic operators. You may use the shift operators, but only by a constant amount (i.e. sigY << sigX is not allowed, but sigY << 4 is). The ternery operator (a?b:c) is allowed and even encouraged. Concatination ( {bit, bit} ) and reduction ( &a[31:0] ) are allowed. Logical equality () and inequality (!=) operators are also permitted.

You are expressly forbidden from using arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /, %) and less-than or greater-than comparisons.

Table 2 summaries the use of Verilog operators

Systemverilog Cheat Sheet

AllowedNot Allowed
~mInversionm + n Addition
m & nBitwise ANDm - nSubtraction
m nBitwise ORm * nMultiplication
m ^ nBitwise XORm / nDivision
m ~^ nBitwise NXORm % nModulus
&mAND Reduction -mNegation (2's Comp)
~&mNAND Reduction m && nLogical AND
mOR Reductionm nLogical OR
~ mNOR Reductionm < nLess Than
^mXOR Reductionm > nGreater Than
~^mNXOR Reductionm <= nLess Than or Equals
m nEqualitym >= nGreater Than or Equals
m != nInequality
m nIdentity
m ! nNot Identical
m << constShift Left*
m >> constShift Right*
test ? m:nTernary
{m, n}Concatenation

5. Usage Examples

The most fundamental thing to keep in mind is that your hardware design will be composed of two things: combinational logic, and state. For any moderately complex logic design, state must be handled in an organized way. An R-S flipflop would get you laughed out the door of a computer design company! In our designs, state will all be held in D-flipflops that are all clocked on the rising edge of a common system clock. You are provided here with a module for a single D-flipflop with synchronous reset. Instantiate copies of this module to build larger registers. Do not create your own flipflops in some other way.

Combinational logic will be specified primarily with 'assign' statements. The statement 'assign xyz = a & b;' specifies an AND gate. An assign statements can get long and complex, and can specify hundreds of gates, but it always represents some set of flow-through logic that generates the value for a wire (or bundle of wires).

Your design will be hierarchical. That means you will write Verilog modules for all the small building blocks of your design, and you will instantiate these modules within larger modules. For example, if you want to increment a number, do not create new increment logic each time; write increment modules of whatever sizes are needed and call them from your other modules. Most of your design should consist of calls to other modules.

The modules you write should have a structure like this:
module my_module_name (param, param, ... param);
input param;
output param;
wire [msb:lsb] signalName;
assign signalName = expression;
modulename instance (param, param...); // call some submodule

First, we name the module and list all its input and output parameters (in order). Second, we list all the input and output parameters all over again, giving their sizes, e.g.
input [7:0] firstByte;
Put the input and output statements in the same order that the parameters appear in the module statement. Verilog does not require it, but good practice (and this class) require that you do so.

The assign statements specify all logic that is to be done in this module. Care should be taken to format it so that it is readable; use liberal whitespace and consider lining up similar logic into columns.

Note that assign statements can operate on an entire 'vector' of bits at one time. Sometimes this involves making multiple copies of a 1-bit wire in order to interact with the vectors. For example:

wire [15:0] a, b, ss, ans;
assign ss = {16{s}}; // use 16 copies of 's'
assign ans = (ss ^ a) b;

When instantiating a module, you must use name the ports when connecting wires to it. For example:

Vhdl Cheat Sheet

Verilog Cheat Sheet

mux2_1 m0(d0, d1, s, b) is NOT OK

mux2_1 m0(.input0(d0), .input1(d1), .select(s), .output0(b)) is CORRECT

Although a case statement is a fairly high-level construct, it is an extremely useful way of representing muxes, next-state evaluation, and other common types of logic. The case statement will be the only situation in this class where you will use statements such as begin, end, reg, always. Look at this example:
wire [1:0] s;
reg out, err;
always @* case (s)
2'b00 : begin out = i0; err = 1'b0; end
2'b01 : begin out = i1; err = 1'b0; end
2'b10 : begin out = i2; err = 1'b0; end
2'b11 : begin out = i3; err = 1'b0; end
default : begin out = i0; err=1'b1; end

The value for the outputs of the case statement must be specified in every case. This is important: Failure to specify a value for some output bit will cause it to retain its previous state, causing a glitch-prone RS latch to form.


Here is a slightly less trivial example. This case statement implements the logic for a state machine which looks for pulses on inputA and then inputB. Note that all outputs are set in each case. Note also that it is clear by inspection that all combinations of inputs have been considered.

wire inputA, inputB, goBack;
wire [2:0] currentState;
reg [2:0] newState;
reg out, err;
always @(goBack or currentState or inputA or inputB)
casex ({goBack, currentState, inputA, inputB})
6'b1_???_?_? : begin out = 0; newState = 3'b000; err=1'b0; end
6'b0_000_0_? : begin out = 0; newState = 3'b000; err=1'b0; end
6'b0_000_1_? : begin out = 0; newState = 3'b001; err=1'b0; end
6'b0_001_1_? : begin out = 0; newState = 3'b001; err=1'b0; end
6'b0_001_0_0 : begin out = 0; newState = 3'b010; err=1'b0; end
6'b0_001_0_1 : begin out = 0; newState = 3'b011; err=1'b0; end
6'b0_010_?_0 : begin out = 0; newState = 3'b010; err=1'b0; end
6'b0_010_?_1 : begin out = 0; newState = 3'b011; err=1'b0; end
6'b0_011_?_1 : begin out = 0; newState = 3'b011; err=1'b0; end
6'b0_011_?_0 : begin out = 0; newState = 3'b100; err=1'b0; end
6'b0_100_?_? : begin out = 1; newState = 3'b000; err=1'b0; end
6'b0_101_?_? : begin out = 0; newState = 3'b000; err=1'b1; end
6'b0_110_?_? : begin out = 0; newState = 3'b000; err=1'b1; end
6'b0_111_?_? : begin out = 0; newState = 3'b000; err=1'b1; end
default: begin out = 0; newState = 3'b000; err=1'b1; end

Also not allowed: Any notion of time or delays; any real numbers. Force statements are OK for debugging but must not appear in a finished assignment.

6. CS 552 Verilog Check Program

A Java program Vcheck will be used to scan your design for some of the common illegal constructs. It is fairly simple, and can be easily fooled into either allowing things or complaining incorrectly. But it is a useful tool if you are unclear as to whether or not your design meets the requirements set forth here. You will be required to run it on your Verilog designs and hand in the output; To run it, copy the two class files Vcheck.class and VerFile.class into a directory (files also available in /u/s/i/sinclair/public/html/courses/cs552/spring2020/handouts/bins/verilog_code/), and from that directory type 'java Vcheck <myfile.v>'

Alternatively there are two more automatic methods (which assume /u/s/i/sinclair/public/html/courses/cs552/spring2020/handouts/bins is in your PATH):

Method 2: From the Linux prompt on a CS machine, cd to the directory where your verilog files are and issue the following command: <myfile.v> <myfile.vcheck>

Method 3: To run vcheck on all the verilog files in a directory: