- Shift Operator , Verilog Example Create shift registers, shift left, shift right in your FPGA or ASIC. The shift operator in Verilog is used to shift data in a variable. The left hand side of the operator contains the variable to shift, the right hand side of the operator contains the number of shifts to perform.
- MIPS Cheat Sheet. Saved by Rusty Shackleford. Assembly Language Cheat Sheets Programming Meant To Be Coding Chocolate Cube Reading Computer Programming.
- Verilog HDL Quick Reference Guide 2 1.0 New Features In Verilog-2001 Verilog-2001, officially the “IEEE 1364-2001 Verilog Hardware Description Language”, adds several significant enhancements to the Verilog-1995 standard. Attribute properties (page 4). Generate blocks (page 21). Configurations (page 43).
This enables compilation for system verilog source files.v: use this flag to indicate which verilog files are part of the library and thus be compiled if needed.timescale: can be used to specify how the abstract delay units in their design map into real time units e.g.
Here you find a complete list of all the features contained in V3S, including a short description, VHDL and Verilog/SystemVerilog support, and the corresponding default Visual Studio Shortcut. This list not only contains V3S specific commands and functions, but also standard features natively supported by Visual Studio which you might find handy.
|Verilog and SystemVerilog support is still in an early phase. It will be enhanced and extended continuously.|
|Renaming||Allows semantically correct renaming of signals, variables, functions, entities, etc.|
|Find all references||Finds all references of a given identifier in the entire project.|
|Naming rules check||Checks if the symbols (signals, functions, etc) obey the configured naming conventions|
|Syntax Highlighting||Code highlighting according to VHDL 2008 syntax: Keywords, symbols, strings, identifiers, etc.|
|Semantic Highlighting||Code highlighting according to semantic analysis: Types, signals, ports, constants, etc. See Syntax Highlighting for details!|
|Type-time Error Checking||On-the-fly error checking and highlighting. Output in Visual Studio's Error Output Window.|
|Code Completion/Autocomplete||Context sensitive code completion (for defined signals, types, entites, etc.).|
|List Symbols||Shows a list of all defined items (also refer to Code Completion).|
|Block Selection Keyboard||Holding Alt+Shift while moving the cursor with the cursor keys uses the very handy block/column-selection mode of Visual Studio.|
|Block Selection Mouse||Pressing Alt while selecting code with the mouse uses the very handy block/column-selection mode.|
|Smart Indentation||Can be deactivated temporarily with Shift and permanently in Preferences. Automatically sets the indent of new code lines according to formatting rules.|
|Smart Indentation for Paste||Can be deactivated temporarily with Shift and permanently in Preferences. Automatically sets the indent of pasted code according to formatting rules.|
|Increase Indent||Increases the indent of the currently selected code lines.|
|Decrease Indent||Decreases the indent of the currently selected code lines.|
|Quickinfo/Tooltip||Useful information (e.g., type, default value, location, etc.) of the underlying item are displayed.|
|Expression Evaluator||Simple constant expressions are automatically evaluated and the result is displayed in the tooltip. Selected expressions are evaluated as well. Also simple string expressions can be resolved.|
|Number Conversion||Numbers, Bitstring, Binary String, etc. are converted to decimal, hex, binary formats and displayed as quickinfo. Floats are displayed as IEEE single/double precision floating point number.|
|Comment Lines||Comments the selected lines (line commenting).|
|Uncomment Lines||Uncomments the selected lines (line commenting).|
|Code Snippets (Expansion)||Opens a list of all available Expansion-Code-Snippets (snippets that insert new code). Select one to insert the respective snippet into the source code.|
|Code Snippets (Surround)||Opens a list of all available Surround-Code-Snippets (snippets that surround selected code). Make a text selection, then choose a snippet to surround the selected code with the respective snippet.|
|Code Snippets||Inserts the code snippet with the respective link/shortcut [*]. The following shortcuts are defined:|
|Code Snippets (Forward)||When in snippet insertion mode, use TAB to move to the next field (and probably show the suggestions list).|
|Code Snippets (Backward)||When in snippet insertion mode, use SHIFT+TAB to move to the previous field (and commit the current value for previous, and probably show the suggestions list).|
|Line Duplication||When nothing is selected, these shortcuts duplicate the current line.|
|Library View||Opens a view which shows the current project's library hierarchy.|
|Hierarchy View||Opens a view which shows the current project's design hierarchy.|
|Create Testbench||Opens a dialog where you can easily create a testbench for an arbitrary entity.|
|Parameter Help||Opens a tooltip with parameter help for the current function/procedure/component/entity|
|Code Formatting||Formats the document or the selection according to your preferences. An (optional) popup-window is shown where settings can be adjusted on the fly|
|Quick Search||Shows a dialog to quickly search for project files and global symbols|
|Find all references||Finds all references of a given identifier|
|Navigate Forward||Move forward to an already visited location|
|Navigate Backward||Move backward to a previously visited location|
|Code Folding||Collapse certain code blocks for better overview and navigation efficiency (processes, function, entities, classes, methods, records, instances, ...)|
|Navigation Bars||Navigate between design units inside a file, and between code blocks inside a design unit|
|Tuple Highlighting||Matching of tuples: Brace matching, if-then-elsif-else-end, case-when-end, process-begin-end, etc. matching|
|Goto Declaration||Jumps to the declaration of the current item|
|Goto Definition||Jumps to the definition of the current item (if different from its declaration)|
|New Project Wizard||Starts the V3S New Project Wizard. Within some clicks, you can create an |
|Virtual Folders||Virtual Folders help to organize your project, especially for files outside the project folder. You can only add files as links into virtual folders.|
|Linked Folders||Linked Folders allow you to link physical folders (using absolute path only!). Upon adding a linked folder, V3S can automatically import all contained files for you.|
|Add New Item||There are two predefined templates: Add new VHDL Code File, and add new VHDL Library File|
|Add Existing Item||Opens the dialog for adding exsting items to the project. Use 'Add as Link' for files outside the project directory|
|Link Files||You have the option to add files as link to your project only. Choose 'Add Existing Item', and click the small arrow next to the 'OK'-button, then choose 'Add as Link'|
|Code Statistics per File||On the HDL files' property page (right-click file in solution explorer, select 'Properties'), there are some basic code statistics. The items are |
|Project-Wide Statistics||On the project's property page (right-click project in solution explorer, select 'Properties'), there are some basic code statistics for all files (except IEEE default libraries) of the project. The items are |
|File Properties||Each HDL file has associated file properties specific for V3S. The items are |
|Custom Syntax Coloring||You can define custom colors for all VHDL syntax elements like keywords, symbols, attributes, signals, constants, ...|
|Color Presets||I have assembled a number of color presets here for your convenience. There is a special preset for users of the dark theme|
|Notifications||Here you can adjust the notification levels for all available code checks|
|Formatting||Here you can configure your prefered formatting styles (indenting, newlines, etc.)|
|Licensing||Here you can review and setup your license|
|Naming Conventions||Here you can import/export your project's naming convention rules|
|Version||Here you can review your current version and check for updates|
|Basics||General V3S settings|
|Language Basics||General Language specific (VHDL/Verilog/SystemVerilog) V3S settings|
|Edit Templates||Allows you to edit snippet, testbench, and new file templates|
|Productivity Power Tools||Productivity Powertools from Microsoft are an excellent and free enhancement for Visual Studio, and they work fine with V3S. I am using them as well, and I wouldn't wanna miss them ever again|
|Highlight all occurrences||Also from Microsoft, also free, also very, very useful|
For simple designs the major steps are:
- Compile the design
- Run the Simulation
- Generate Code Coverage Report
Compiling Verilog design using VCS
- -cm coverage-type: specifies the type of coverage information to collect. The line, tgl, cond, fsm and path options enable statement (line), toggle, condition, FSM, and path coverage respectively. Any combination of coverage can be enabled simultaneously using the + sign e.g. -cm cond+line enables conditional and line coverage.
- -cm_line contassign: monitor continuous assignments for line coverage
- -cm_cond allops+anywidth+event: monitor non-logical operators, of any width, and always block sensitivity expressions for condition coverage
- -cm_noconst: try to automatically ignore constant expressions and unreachable statements
for line and condition coverage
- +lint=all: turns on all verilog warnings
- +v2k: tells VCS to handle Verilog-2001 features, include this option if you are using those features
- -PP: turns on support for using the VPD trace output format
- -debug_all option allows to run the interactive DVE tool and use steps to debug the design
- -l file_name: logs the compiler messages to given file name
- -f file_name: tells VCS to read source files from the given file
Few optional arguments
- -sverilog: include this options if system verilog source files are also present. This enables compilation for system verilog source files.
- -v: use this flag to indicate which verilog files are part of the library and thus be compiled if needed.
- -timescale: can be used to specify how the abstract delay units in their design map into real time units e.g. -timescale=1ns/10ps
During compilation a subdirectory named csrc is created to store the files generated by compilation. This directory includes:
- Makefile for the compilation process
- Object files from the compilation. These object files are linked to create the simv executable.
- Intermediate C or Assembly source files.
The source files are compiled on module-by-module basis. Incremental compilation means that if we run the vcs command again, only the modules that have changed after the last compilation are recompiled. VCS compares the modules in the source file to the descriptor information in the generated files from the last compilation, if a module’s contents are different from what VCS recorded in the last compilation, VCS recompiles the module.
Compile time options that affect incremental compilation all begin with -M.
Running the Simulation
For text based output use:
For debugging with DVE GUI use:
For Generating code coverage information run as:
Generating code coverage reports using VCS URG
For generating code coverage report in html form use the following command
To generate code coverage report in text form add the extra options as
A directory named urgReport will be created in current directory. This directory contains all the generated reports.
Verilog Syntax Cheat Sheet Free
- VCS Quickstart
- VCS User Guide